BEST TOILETS IN ORANGE COUNTY CA
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, 92651, 92652, Laguna Hills ,92653, 92654,92607,92677,
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Linda, 92885, 92886, 92887
MISSION VIEJO CA, MISSION VIEJO TOILET, TOILETS MISSION
VIEJO, TOILET REPAIR MISSION VIEJO, TOILET REPLACEMENT MISSION
VIEJO, NEW TOILET MISSION VIEJO, VOTED BEST TOILETS IN ORANGE
COUNTY CA, Todo, high efficiency toilets, dual flush toilets,
corner toilets, one piece toilets, Whitehaus Toilets, Vitra
USA Brand Toilets, Villeroy & Boch Toilets, upflush toilets,
Sloan Power Flush, Flushmaster, Sterling Brand Toilet, Toto
Brand ToiletFluidmaster Toilets, Gerber, Inax, Glacier,
ADA compliant Toilets, siphonic toilets, American Standard
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toilet wax rings, running toilets, broken toilets, repair
my toilet, Water Toilet, Tank Fill Valve, Flapper-Flush
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has been specializing in the service, repair and installation
of TOILETS for OVER 25 YEARS.
repair and replacement option because we have good service and
honest prices. If you are curious we can also talk to you about
which TOILET and brand meets your needs and how efficient
it will be for you and your family. We will be glad to be of
we tell you the truth because we want lifetime customers and
not a quick buck. We want to be the person you call, recommend
and depend on showing up for your plumbing needs and emergencies.
HE DID A GREAT JOB!"
is a very reliable plumber. He knows everythng about your plumbling
and will get the job done correctly, quickly, neatly, and reasonably.
He came out to our house for a leaking water heater, while we
were out of state he arrived within 15 minutes of our call!
He did a great job for a friend who I referred to him. I would
definitely recommend art for any of your plumbing needs." -
Marian, Lake Forest CA
for taking care of my customers. As a general contractor it
is very important to have the right companies to refer to your
best customers. You have always shown up on time and were able
to find and fix the problem very quickly and at a reasonable
cost." - Pat, Lake Forest CA
CLEAN AND PROFESSIONAL!"
am a general contractor and Art has worked for me several times.
His work is always very clean, professional and very reasonably
priced. I have been told several times that Art does not always
push the expensive fixes, but what is the best for the customers.
I highly recommend Art for all of your plumbing needs."
Owen, Mission Viejo CA
most things in life, it's not quite that simple. Give
us a try, we hope we can serve you with your TOILET needs
so you can be happy with us and your problem is solved. Our
ultimate compliment is telling somone to give use a call because
we did a really good job for you!
toilets can be designed for sitting or for squatting:
Top: A flush toilet designed for sitting and cistern;
Bottom: A squat toilet, with water tank for flushing
toilet is a toilet
that disposes of human liquid and solid waste, by using
water to flush it through a drainpipe to another location
for disposal, thus maintaining a separation between humans
and their excreta.
Flush toilets can be designed for sitting (in which case
they are also called "Western" toilets) or for squatting,
in the case of squat
toilets. The opposite of a flush toilet is a dry
toilet which uses no water for flushing.
toilets usually incorporate an "S", "U", "J", or "P" shaped
bend that causes the water in the toilet bowl to collect
and act as a seal against sewer gases. Since flush toilets
are typically not designed to handle waste on site, their
drain pipes must be connected to waste conveyance and waste
treatment systems. When a toilet is flushed, the wastewater
flows into a septic
tank or sewage
system and from there to a sewage
toilet may be colloquially called a lavatory, water closet
(abbreviated W.C.), loo, comfort room (abbreviated C.R.),
and many other names.
toilet is different from a urinal,
which is designed to handle only liquid waste; or from a
bidet, which can
be used for personal cleansing after toilet use.
flush toilet bowl during the flushing action
sound of a flush toilet
flush toilet is a vitreous, ceramic
bowl containing water, plus plumbing
to rapidly fill it with more water. The water in the toilet
bowl is connected to a hollow drain pipe shaped like an
upside-down U connecting the drain. One side of the U channel
is arranged as a hollow siphon
tube longer than the water in the bowl is high. The siphon
tube connects to the drain. The top of the upside-down U-shaped
drain pipe limits the height of the water in the bowl before
it flows down the drain. If water is poured slowly into
the bowl it simply flows over the rim of the upside-down
U and pours slowly down the drain — thus the toilet does
not flush. The standing water in the bowl acts as a barrier
to sewer gas
coming out of the sewer through the drain, and also as a
receptacle for waste. Sewer gas is vented through a separate
vent pipe attached to the sewer line.
a user flushes a toilet, a "toilet flapper valve" (not to
be confused with a type of check
valve) opens and allows water from a reservoir tank
to quickly enter the toilet bowl. This rapid influx from
the tank causes the swirling water in the bowl to rapidly
rise and fill the U-shaped inverted siphon tube mounted
in the back of the toilet. This full siphon tube starts
the toilet's siphonic
action. The siphon action quickly (4–7 seconds) “pulls”
nearly all of the water and waste in the bowl and the on-rushing
tank water down the drain — it flushes. When most of the
water has drained out of the bowl, the continuous column
of water up and over the bottom of the upside-down U-shaped
drain pipe (the siphon) is broken when air enters the siphon
tube. The toilet then gives its characteristic gurgle as
the siphonic action ceases and no more water flows out of
the toilet. After flushing, the flapper valve in the water
tank closes; water lines and valves connected to the water
supply refill the toilet tank and bowl. Then the toilet
is again ready for use.
top of the toilet bowl is a rim with many angled drain holes
that are fed from the tank, which fill, rinse, and induce
swirling in the bowl when it is flushed. Mounted above the
toilet is a large holding tank with approximately 1.6 to
1.2 U.S. gallons (6.1 to 4.5 L) of water in modern
designs. This tank is built with a large drain 2.0 to 3.0
inches (5.08 to 7.62 cm) diameter hole at its bottom
covered by a flapper valve that allows the water to rapidly
leave the holding tank. The plumbing is built to allow entry
of the tank’s water into the toilet in a very short period.
This water pours through the holes in the rim and a siphon
jet hole about 1.0 inch (2.54 cm) diameter in the bottom
of the toilet. Some designs use a large hole in the front
of the rim to allow faster filling of the bowl.
with an elevated cistern
of water and a chain attached to the tank to release
water and flush the waste away
body is typically made from vitreous china, which starts
out as an aqueous suspension of various minerals called
It takes about 20 kilograms (44 lb) of slip to make
slip is poured into the space between plaster
of Paris molds. The toilet bowl, rim, tank and tank
lid require separate molds. The molds are assembled and
set up for filling and the slip-filled molds sit for about
an hour after filling. This allows the plaster molds to
absorb moisture from the slip, which makes it semisolid
next to the mold surfaces but lets it remain liquid further
from the surface of the molds. Then, the workers remove
plugs to allow any excess liquid slip to drain from the
cavities of the mold (this excess slip is recycled for later
use). The drained-out slip leaves hollow voids inside the
fixture, using less material to keep it both lighter and
easier to fire in a kiln.
This molding process allows the formation of intricate internal
waste lines in the fixture; the drain's hollow cavities
are poured out as slip.
point, the toilet parts without their molds look like and
are about as strong as soft clay. After about one hour the
top core mold (interior of toilet) is removed. The rim mold
bottom (which includes a place to mount the holding tank)
is removed, and it then has appropriate slanted holes for
the rinsing jets cut, and the mounting holes for tank and
seat are punched into the rim piece. Valve holes for rapid
water entry into the toilet are cut into the rim pieces.
The exposed top of the bowl piece is then covered with a
thick slip and the still-uncured rim is attached on top
of the bowl so that the bowl and hollow rim are now a single
piece. The bowl plus rim is then inverted, and the toilet
bowl is set upside down on the top rim mold to hold the
pieces together as they dry. Later, all the rest of the
mold pieces are removed. As the clay body dries further
it hardens more and continues to shrink. After a few hours,
the casting is self-supporting, and is called greenware.
the molds are removed, workers use hand tools and sponges
to smooth the edges and surface of the greenware, and to
remove the mold joints or roughness: this process is called
"fettling". For large scale production pieces, these steps
may be automated. The parts are then left outside or put
in a warm room to dry, before going through a dryer at about
93 °C (199 °F), for about 20–36 hours.
the surfaces are smoothed, the bowls and tanks are sprayed
of various kinds to get different colors. This glaze is
designed to shrink and contract at the same rate as the
greenware while undergoing firing. After being sprayed with
glaze, the toilet bowls, tanks, and lids are placed in stacks
on a conveyor belt or "car" that slowly goes through a large
kiln to be fired.
The belt slowly moves the glaze-covered greenware into a
tunnel kiln, which has different temperature zones inside
it starting at about 200 °C (392 °F) at the front,
increasing towards the middle to over 1,200 °C (2,190 °F)
degrees and exiting around out 90 °C (194 °F).
During the firing in the kiln, the greenware and glaze are
vitrified as one solid finished unit. Transiting the kiln
takes glaze-covered greenware around 23–40 hours.
the pieces are removed from the kiln and fully cooled, they
are inspected for cracks or other defects. Then, the flushing
mechanism may be installed on a one-piece toilet. On a two-piece
toilet with a separate tank, the flushing mechanism may
only be placed into the tank, with final assembly at installation.
and toilet bowl lid are typically mounted over the bowl
to allow covering the toilet when it is not in use and to
provide seating comfort. The seat may be installed at the
factory, or the parts may be sold separately and assembled
by a plumbing distributor or the installer.
bowl drain is visible at the rear of the bowl, connected
to the waste pipe
amount of water used by conventional flush toilets usually
make up a significant portion of personal daily water usage:
for example, it could be 50 liters (13 U.S. gal)
liters per person per day if a person flushes his or her
toilet five times per day with 10 liters per flush. In some
locations, users are encouraged not to flush after urination.
flush toilet designs allow the use of much less water
per flush —1.6 to 1.2 U.S. gallons (6.1 to 4.5 L) per
flush toilets allow the user to select between a flush
for urine or feces, saving a significant amount of water
over conventional units. The flush handle on some of these
toilets is pushed up for one kind of flush and down for
In other designs, a segmented flush pushbutton is used;
pressing the smaller section releases less water.
toilets, if plumbed for it, may also use greywater
(water previously used for washing dishes, laundry and bathing)
for flushing rather than potable
water (drinking water). Heads
(on ships) are typically flushed with seawater.
flushing mechanism provides a large flow of water into the
bowl (which is described later in this article). The mechanism
usually incorporates one or more parts of the following
ballcock or float valve is often used to regulate the
filling of a tank or cistern. When the fluid level drops,
the float descends, levering the valve opening and allowing
more fluid to enter. Once the float reached the 'full'
position, the arm presses the valve shut again.
are found in all tank-style toilets. The valves are of two
main designs: the side-float design and the concentric-float
design. The side-float design has existed for over a hundred
years. The concentric design has only existed since 1957,
but is gradually becoming more popular than the side-float
design. Fluidmaster, founded in the United States by inventor
Schoepe, pioneered this design, which is also available
from other manufacturers.
side-float design uses a float on the end of a lever to
control the fill valve. The float is usually shaped like
a ball, so the mechanism is called a ball-valve or a ballcock.
Cock is a term for valve; see, for example, stopcock.
The float was originally made from copper sheet, but it
is now usually plastic. The float is located to one side
of the main valve tower at the end of a rod or arm. As the
side-float rises, so does the side-float-arm. The arm connects
to the fill valve that blocks the water flow into the toilet
tank, and thus maintains a constant level in the tank.
type of concentric float valve. The concentric float
valve opens when the fluid level is low, allowing more
fluid to enter (Figure 1). When the fluid level returns
to the full level, the valve is shut (Figure 2).
newer concentric-float fill valve consists of a tower which
is encircled by a plastic float assembly. Operation is otherwise
the same as a side-float fill valve, even though the float
position is somewhat different. By virtue of its more compact
layout, interference between the float and other obstacles
(tank insulation, flush valve, and so on) is greatly reduced,
thus increasing reliability. The concentric-float fill valve
is also designed to signal to users automatically when there
is a leak in the tank, by making much more noise when a
leak is present than the older style side-float fill valve,
which tends to be nearly silent when a slow leak is present.
style with flapper-flush valve
traditional gravity toilet tank concluding the flush
cycle. As the water level in the tank drops, the flush
valve flapper falls back to the bottom, stopping the
main flow to the flush tube. Because the tank water
level has yet to reach the fill line, water continues
to flow from the tank and bowl fill tubes. When the
water again reaches the fill line, the float will release
the fill valve shaft and water flow will stop.
1. float, 2. fill valve, 3. lift arm, 4. tank fill tube,
5. bowl fill tube, 6. flush valve flapper, 7. overflow
tube, 8. flush handle, 9. chain, 10. fill line, 11.
fill valve shaft, 12. flush tube
tank-based system, the storage tank (or cistern) collects
between 6 and 17 litres (1.3 and 3.7 imp gal;
1.6 and 4.5 US gal) of water over a period of
time. This system is suitable for locations plumbed with
inch (13 mm) or 3/8
inch (9.5 mm) water pipes. These small diameter pipes
cannot supply water quickly enough to flush the toilet;
the tank is needed to supply a large volume of water in
a short time. The storage tank is kept full by a tank fill-valve.
The storage tank is usually mounted directly upon the bowl,
although some tanks are mounted on the wall a few feet above
the bowl in an attempt to increase the flush water pressure
as it enters the bowl. Tanks near the ceiling are flushed
by means of a dangling pull
chain, often with a large ornate handle, connected to
a flush lever on the cistern itself. "Pulling the chain"
remains a British euphemism for flushing the toilet, although
this type of tank or cistern is becoming rare. A similar
expression is Wasser ziehen ("to pull water").
using a flapper-flush valve, the outlet at the bottom of
the tank is covered by a buoyant (plastic or rubber) cover,
or flapper, which is held in place against a fitting (the
flush valve seat) by water pressure. To flush the
toilet, the user pushes a lever, which lifts the flush valve
from the valve seat. The valve then floats clear of the
seat, allowing the tank to empty quickly into the bowl.
As the water level drops, the floating flush valve descends
back to the bottom of the tank and covers the outlet pipe
again. This system is common in homes in the US and in continental
Europe. Recently this flush system has also become available
in the UK due to a change in regulations.
style with siphon-flush valve
system, invented by Albert Giblin and common in the UK,
uses a storage tank similar to that used in the flapper-flush-valve
system above. This flush valve system is sometimes referred
to as a valveless system, since no traditional type
of valve is required. Some would argue, however, that any
system of regulating the flow of a fluid is still technically
a valve. In the siphon-flush-valve system, the user
pushes a lever or button, forcing the water up into the
tank siphon passageway which then empties the water in the
tank into the bowl. The advantage of a siphon over the flush
valve is that it has no sealing washers
that can wear out and cause leaks, so it is favoured in
places where there is a need to conserve water.
recently, the use of siphon-type cisterns was mandatory
in the UK to avoid the potential waste of water by millions
of leaking toilets with flapper valves but due to EU harmonisation
the regulations have changed. These valves can sometimes
be more difficult to operate than a "flapper"-based flush
valve because the lever requires more torque than a flapper-flush-valve
system. This additional torque required at the tank lever
is due to the fact that a user must forcefully lift a certain
amount of water up into the siphon passageway in order to
initiate the siphon action in the tank.
installations, known as "high suite combinations", used
a high-level cistern (tank), fitted above head height, that
was operated by pulling a chain hanging down from a lever
attached to the cistern. When more modern close-coupled
cistern and bowl combinations were first introduced, these
were first referred to as "low suite combinations". Modern
versions have a neater-looking low-level cistern with a
lever that the user can reach directly, or a close-coupled
cistern that is even lower down and integrated with the
bowl. In recent decades the close coupled tank/bowl combination
has become the most popular residential system, as it has
been found by ceramic engineers that improved waterway design
is a more effective way to enhance the bowl's flushing action
than high tank mounting.
flush versions of this design are now widely available.
In countries such as Israel,
or Germany which either have limitations on water consumption
or where people are keen to save water, dual
flush toilets are now common in both homes and public
style with high-pressure or pressure-assist valve
system uses water main pressure to pre-pressurize a plastic
tank located inside what otherwise appears to be the more
typical ceramic flush tank. A flush cycle begins each time
a user flushes the bowl. After a user flushes and the water
in the pre-pressurized tank has finished emptying into the
bowl, the outlet valve in the plastic tank shuts. Then the
high pressure water from the main refills the plastic tank.
Inside the tank is an air-filled balloon-like rubber diaphragm.
As the higher-pressure mains water enters the tank, the
rubber diaphragm is also pressurized and shrinks accordingly.
flushing, the compressed air inside the diaphragm pushes
the water into the bowl at a flow rate which is significantly
higher than a tank style gravity-flow toilet. This system
requires slightly less water than a gravity-flow toilet-
or alternatively can be more effective for a similar amount
of water. Pressure-assist toilets are sometimes found in
both private (single, multiple, and lodging) bathrooms as
well as light commercial installations (such as offices).
They seldom clog, but the pressurized tanks require replacement
about once every 10 years. They also tend to be noisier
- a possible concern for residential settings. Newer toilets
from several companies such as Kohler that are pressure-assisted
use 1.4 US gallons (5.3 l) to 1.1 US gallons (4.2 l)
style with high-pressure (flushometer) valve
Sloan first made his "flushometer"
style toilet flush valve, incorporating his patented design,
available to the public. The design proved to be very popular
and efficient, and remains so to this day. Flushometer toilet
flush valves are still often installed in commercial restrooms,
and are frequently used for both toilets and urinals. Since
they have no tank, they have zero recharge time, and can
be used immediately by the next user of the toilet. They
can be easily identified by their distinctive chrome pipe-work,
and by the absence of a toilet tank or cistern, wherever
they are employed.
flushometer models require the user to either depress a
lever or press a button, which in turn opens a flush valve
allowing mains-pressure water to flow directly into the
toilet bowl or urinal. Other flushometer models are electronically
triggered, using an infrared sensor to initiate the flushing
process. Typically, on electronically triggered models,
an override button is provided in case the user wishes to
manually trigger flushing earlier. Some electronically triggered
models also incorporate a true mechanical manual override
which can be used in the event of the failure of the electronic
system. In retrofit installations, a self-contained battery-powered
or hard-wired unit can be added to an existing manual flushometer
to flush automatically when a user departs.
a flushometer valve has been flushed, and after a preset
interval, the flushometer mechanism closes the valve and
stops the flow. The flushometer system requires no storage
tank, but requires a high volume of water in a very short
time. Thus a 3/4
inch (19 mm) pipe at minimum, or preferably a 1 inch
(25 mm) pipe, must be used, but as the high volume
is used only for a short duration, very little water is
used for the amount of flushing efficacy delivered. Water
main pressures must be above 30 pounds per square inch (2.1 bar).
While the higher water pressure employed by a flushometer
valve does scour the bowl more efficiently than a gravity-driven
system, and while fewer blockages typically occur as a result
of this higher water pressure, flushometer systems still
require approximately the same amount of water as a gravity
system to operate (1.6 gpf).
with non-potable water sources
water flushing, including seawater flushing, is a method
conservation, where raw
water, such as seawater,
is used for flush toilets. Such systems are used in places
such as the majority of cities and towns in Hong
Kong (see water
supply and sanitation in Hong Kong),
Gibraltar, and Avalon,
California, United States.
styles of toilet:
Figure 1. The Washdown style
Figure 2. The Wash-out style
Figure 3. The Reverse Bowl or Shelf Style
"bowl", "loo", or "pan" of a toilet is the receptacle that
receives bodily waste. A toilet bowl is most often made
of a ceramic,
but can sometimes be made of stainless steel or composite
plastics. Toilet bowls are mounted in any one of three basic
manners: above-floor mounted (pedestal),
wall mounted (cantilever),
or in-floor mounted (squat
the bowl, there are three main waterway design systems:
the siphoning trapped system (found primarily in North American
residential installations, and in North American light commercial
installations), the non-siphoning trapped system (found
in most other installations both inside and outside of North
America), and the valve-closet system (found in many specialty
applications, such as in trains, planes, buses, and other
such installations around the world). Older style toilets
called "washout" toilets are now only found in a few locations.
siphoning toilet is perhaps the most popular design in North
America for residential and light commercial toilet installations.
Some other terms for these types of toilets are "siphon
jet", "siphon wash", and in North America, "wash down".
All siphoning toilets incorporate an "S" shaped waterway.
The waterways in these toilets are designed with slightly
smaller diameters than a non-siphoning toilet, so that the
waterway will naturally fill up with water, each time it
is flushed, thus creating the siphon action. To flush the
toilet the user activates a flushing mechanism (see above),
which pours a large quantity of water quickly into the bowl.
This creates a flow large enough to purge the bowl's waterway
of all air, thus causing the bowl to empty rapidly due to
the siphon action that has been created. This flow stops
as soon as the water level in the bowl drops below the first
bend of the siphon, allowing air to enter the S-pipe to
break the column of liquid and to halt the siphonic action.
siphoning toilet" can be easily identified by the noise
it makes. If it can be heard to suck air down the drain
at the end of a flush, then it is a true siphoning toilet.
If not, then it is either a double trap siphonic or a non-siphoning
trap siphonic toilet
double trap siphonic toilet is a less common type that is
exceptionally quiet when flushed. There is a device known
as an aspirator which uses the flow of water on a flush
to suck air from the cavity between the two traps, reducing
the air pressure there to create the siphon which sucks
water and waste from the toilet bowl. Towards the end of
the flush the aspirator ceases being covered in water, thus
allowing air into the cavity between traps to break the
siphon without the noise while the final flush water fills
valve closet has a valve or flap at the exit of the bowl
with a water-tight seal to retain a pool of water in the
pan. When the toilet is flushed, the valve is opened and
the water in the pan flows rapidly out of the bowl into
the drains, carrying the waste with it.
earliest type of toilet, the valve closet is now rarely
used for water-flush toilet systems. More complicated in
design than other toilets, this design has lower reliability
and is more difficult to maintain or repair. The most common
use for valve closets is now in portable closets for caravans,
camping, trains, and aircraft, where the flushing fluid
is recycled. This design is also used in train carriages
for use in areas where the waste is allowed to be simply
dumped between the tracks (the flushing of such toilets
is generally prohibited when the train is in a station).
toilets have a flat platform with a shallow pool of water.
They are flushed by a jet of water from the back that drives
excreta into the trap below. From there, the water flow
removes it into the sewage system. An advantage of the design
is that users will not get splashed from below. Washout
toilets have a shallow pool of water into which waste is
deposited, with a trapped drain just behind this pool. Waste
is cleared out from this pool of water by being swept over
into the trap
(usually either a P-trap or an S-trap) and then beyond into
a sewer by water from the flush. Washout pans were amongst
the first types of ceramic toilets invented and since the
early 1970s are now only found in a decreasing number of
localities in continental Europe . A washout toilet is a kind
of flush toilet which were once predominantly used in Germany,
France. It was
patented in Britain by George Jennings in 1852 and remained
the standard toilet type in Britain throughout the 19th
shelf-style toilet which holds fecal matter above the
water until flushed
shelf style or Flachspüler ("shallow flush") toilet,
the bowl is designed with a receiver shelf to hold the fecal
matter out of the water prior to flushing (i.e. the feces
do not fall directly into standing water). The design prevents
the occurrence of any splash-up which commonly happens when
fecal matter plunges into the standing water of other toilet
designs (although substantial deposits may cause splash-up
problems of their own). Examples of this type of toilet
can be found in the Netherlands, Germany, Austria, some
regions of Poland, and Australia, although it is becoming
disadvantage of this design is that it may require the more
intense use of a toilet
brush to remove bits of feces that may have "skid-marked"
on the shelf . Similar designs are found
in some early toilets in the US, one particular brand being
labeled the "Grand Niagara", as the flushing of the shelf
created a waterfall effect into the drain chamber.
flush toilets in old railcars
type of toilet is used on most older style Russian trains,
made in Eastern Germany (Ammendorf factory, design dated
probably to the 1950s), employing a pan-like shutter valve
discharging waste directly onto the trackbed below. Usage
of this toilet is permitted only while the train is moving,
and outside of major cities. These designs are being phased
out, together with the old trains, and are being replaced
with modern vacuum systems.
British singer Ian
Wallace composed and performed the humorous song "Never
Do It at the Station", which mentioned the old-fashioned
trackbed dumping toilets which were still in use during
the mid-20th century in Britain. The song first advised
travelers to save money by avoiding pay
toilets in train stations, but also reminded polite
passengers not to use the onboard "loo" while the train
was stopped at a station.
parts of Asia, people traditionally use the toilet in a
squatting position. This applies to defecation and urination
by males and females. Therefore, homes and public washrooms
toilets, with the toilet bowl installed in the floor.
This has the advantages of not needing an additional toilet
seat and also being more convenient for cultures where people
use water to wash their genitals instead of toilet paper.
However, Western-style toilets that are mounted at sitting
height and which have a plastic seat have become popular
as well. Many public washrooms have both squatting and sitting
countries, instructions have been put up in some public
toilets on the correct use of a sitting-style toilet. This
is to avoid breaking the toilet or seat if someone attempts
to squat on the edges.
the "Anglo-Indian" design allows the same toilet to be used
in the sitting or the squatting
and high-efficiency flush toilets
1994, there is a significant move towards using less water
for flushing flush toilets. This has resulted in the emergence
flush toilet designs and local or national standards
consumption for flushing. In addition, some people modify
their existing high flush toilet to use less water by placing
a brick or water bottle into the toilet's water tank.
Other modifications are often done on the water system itself
(such as by using greywater),
or a system that pollutes the water less; hence more efficient
use of the water is accomplished.
diversion flush toilets, which were developed in Sweden,
save water by using less water, or even no water, for the
urine flush compared to about six litres for the feces flush.
standards for new toilets
residential and pre-1997 commercial flush toilets in the
United States typically used 3.4 US gallons (13 L)
of water per flush (gpf or lpf). In 1992, the United
States Congress passed the Energy
Policy Act of 1992, which mandated that beginning in
1994 common flush toilets use only 1.6 US gallons (6.1 L).
In response to the Act, manufacturers produced low-flow
toilets, which many consumers did not like because they
often required more than one flush to remove solids. People
unhappy with the reduced performance of the low-flow toilets
resorted to driving across the border to Canada or Mexico,
or buying salvaged
toilets from older buildings.
Manufacturers responded to consumers' complaints by improving
the toilets. The improved products are generally identified
as high efficiency toilets or HETs. HETs possess
an effective flush volume of 1.3 US gallons (4.9 L)
HETs may be single-flush or dual-flush. A
dual-flush toilet permits its user to choose between two
amounts of water, depending on whether they generated solid
or liquid waste.
Some HETs are pressure-assisted
(or power-assisted or pump-assisted or vacuum-assisted).
performance of a flush-toilet may be rated by a Maximum
Performance (MaP) score. The low end of MaP scores is 250
(250 grams of simulated fecal matter). The high end
of MaP scores is 1000. A toilet with a MaP score of 1000
should provide trouble-free service. It should remove all
waste with a single flush; it should not plug; it should
not harbor any odor; it should be easy to keep clean. The
United States Environmental
Protection Agency uses a MaP score of 350 as the minimum
performance threshold for HETs.
1.6 gpf toilets are also sometimes referred as ULF (Ultra
Low Flow) toilets.
used to make up for the inadequacies of low flow toilets
include using thinner toilet paper,
plungers, and adding extra cups of water to the bowl manually.
safety in multi-story buildings
in multi-story buildings,
located on fire-resistance
rated floors typically require at least two through-penetrations,
which can compromise the rating of the floor if left untreated.
One opening is for the fresh water supply to flush and/or
fill the water tank. The other through-penetration is for
the drain pipe. The fresh water supply line requires routine
firestopping. The drain pipe, however, is exempt from firestopping
in many building
codes, particularly when noncombustible piping
is used, because the penetration terminates on the unexposed
side in a ceramic
bowl filled with water, which can withstand significant
firestops are often used, in the event plastic
pipes are used for toilet drains, so that the melting plastic
pipe is choked off in the event of an accidental fire. It
is, however, customary to fill the metallic drain pipe annulus
Even with the best of intentions, it would be difficult
for the firestopper to install a sealant,
because the installer is not allowed to remove the flange,
which is partially used to support the drain pipe below
during the installation process.
toilet cleaning is done using a toilet
brush. Many designs are available, some including a
holder to enclose the brush when it is not in use.
usually occurs as a result of an attempt to flush unsuitable
items, or too much toilet paper. Flushing of large amounts
of hair should also be avoided. However, clogging can occur
spontaneously due to limescale
fouling of the drain pipe, or by overloading the stool capacity
of the toilet. Stool capacity varies among toilet designs
and is based on the size of the drainage pipe, the capacity
of the water tank, the velocity of a flush, and the method
by which the water attempts to vacate the bowl of its contents.
The size and consistency of the stool is also a contributing,
but hard-to-predict factor. In recent years, clogging has
become more frequent due to regulations that require the
use of small-tanked low-flush toilets in attempt to conserve
water. Sometimes, three to four flushes periodically during
the use of a low-flush toilet may be required to prevent
clogging, thus using more water than larger-tanked toilets.
Designs which increase the velocity of flushed water or
improve the travel path can improve low-flow reliability.
clogging is particularly insidious, as it is usually not
discovered immediately, but only later by an unsuspecting
user trying to flush a loaded toilet. Overflowing of the
water mixed with excrement may then occur, depending on
the bowl volume, tank capacity and severity of clogging.
For this reason, rooms with flush toilets may be designed
rooms, with a second drain
on the floor, and a shower
head capable of reaching the whole floor area. Common
means to remedy clogging include use of a toilet
cleaner or a plumber's
flush toilet systems
that used water were used in the Indus
Valley Civilization. The cities of Harappa
had a flush toilet in almost every house, attached to a
See also Hydraulic
engineering of the Indus Valley Civilization. They also
appear in Knossos
of the ancient Minoan
civilization from the 2nd millennium BC.
forms of flush toilets have been found to exist since ancient
times. The oldest neolithic village in Britain,
dating from circa 31st century BC, Skara
used a form of hydraulic technology for sanitation.
The village's design used a river and connecting drainage
system to wash waste away.
flush toilets were in use throughout the Roman
Empire from the 1st through 5th centuries AD. Some examples
include those at Vindolanda
Wall in Britain. With the fall of the Roman Empire,
these toilet systems fell into disuse.
of the flush toilet
John Harington (1561–1612) published A New Discourse
of a Stale Subject, Called the Metamorphosis of Ajax,
describing a forerunner to the modern flush toilet installed
at his house at Kelston.
The design had a flush valve to let water out of the tank,
and a wash-down design to empty the bowl. He installed one
for his godmother Queen
Elizabeth I at Richmond
the onset of the Industrial
Revolution and related advances in technology, the flush
toilet began to emerge into its modern form. A crucial advance
in plumbing, was the S-trap,
invented by Alexander
Cumming in 1775, and still in use today. This device
uses the standing water to seal the outlet of the bowl,
preventing the escape of foul air from the sewer. His design
had a sliding valve in the bowl outlet above the trap. Two
years later, Samuel Prosser applied for a British patent
for a "plunger closet".
Bramah's improved version was the first practical
Bramah began his professional career installing water
closets (toilets) that were based on Alexander Cumming's
patented design of 1775. He found that the current model
being installed in London houses had a tendency to freeze
in cold weather. In collaboration with a Mr. Allen, he improved
the design by replacing the usual slide valve with a hinged
flap that sealed the bottom of the bowl.
developed a float valve system for the flush tank. Obtaining
the patent for it in 1778, he began making toilets at a
workshop in Denmark Street, St
The design was arguably the first practical flush toilet,
and production continued well into the 19th century, used
mainly on boats.
only in the mid-19th century, with growing levels of urbanisation
and industrial prosperity, that the flush toilet became
a widely used and marketed invention. This period coincided
with the dramatic growth
in the sewage system, especially in London,
which made the flush toilet particularly attractive for
health and sanitation reasons.
Jennings established a business manufacturing water
closets, salt-glaze drainage, sanitary pipes and sanitaryware
at Parkstone Pottery in the 1840s, where he popularized
the flush toilet to middle class. At The
Great Exhibition at Hyde
Park held from 1 May to 15 October 1851, George Jennings
installed his Monkey Closets in the Retiring Rooms of The
Crystal Palace. These were the first public pay
toilets (free ones did not appear until later), and
they caused great excitement. During the exhibition, 827,280
visitors paid one penny to use them; for the penny they
got a clean seat, a towel, a comb, and a shoe
shine. "To spend a penny" became a euphemism
(now archaic) for going to the toilet.
the exhibition finished and moved to Sydenham, the toilets
were to be closed down. However, Jennings persuaded the
organisers to keep them open, and the toilet went on to
earn over £1000 a year. He opened the first underground
convenience at the
Royal Exchange in 1854. He received a patent in 1852
for an improved construction of water-closet, in which the
pan and trap were constructed in the same piece, and so
formed that there was always a small quantity of water retained
in the pan itself, in addition to that in the trap which
forms the water-joint. He also improved the construction
of valves, drain traps, forcing pumps and pump-barrels.
By the end of the 1850s building codes suggested that most
new middle-class homes in British cities were equipped with
a water closet.
pioneering manufacturer was Thomas
William Twyford, who invented the single piece, ceramic
The 1870s proved to be a defining period for the sanitary
industry and the water closet; the debate between the simple
water closet trap basin made entirely of earthenware and
the very elaborate, complicated and expensive mechanical
water closet would fall under public scrutiny and expert
In 1875, the "wash-out" trap water closet was first sold
and was found as the public's preference for basin type
water closets. By 1879, Twyford had devised his own type
of the "wash out" trap water closet, he titled it the "National",
and became the most popular wash-out water closet.
toilets were widely available from the mid to late 19th
century. Although Thomas
Crapper did not invent the flush toilet, he was
a leading manufacturer.
1880s, the free-standing water closet was sold and quickly
gained popularity; the free-standing water closet was able
to be cleaned more easily and was therefore a more hygienic
water closet. Twyford's "Unitas" model was free standing
and made completely of earthenware. Throughout the 1880s
he submitted further patents for improvements to the flushing
rim and the outlet. Finally in 1888, he applied for a patent
protection for his "after flush" chamber; the device allowed
for the basin to be refilled by a lower quantity of clean
water in reserve after the water closet was flushed.
The modern pedestal "flush-down" toilet was demonstrated
by Frederick Humpherson of the Beaufort Works, Chelsea,
England in 1885.
leading companies of the period issued catalogues, established
showrooms in department stores and marketed their products
around the world. Twyford had showrooms for water closets
in Berlin, Germany;
and Cape Town,
South Africa. The Public
Health Act 1875 set down stringent guidelines relating
to sewers, drains, water supply and toilets and lent tacit
government endorsement to the prominent water closet manufacturers
of the day.
to popular legend, Sir Thomas
Crapper did not invent the flush toilet. He was, however,
in the forefront of the industry in the late 19th century,
and held nine patents, three of them for water closet improvements
such as the floating ballcock.
His flush toilets were designed by inventor Albert Giblin,
who received a British patent for the "Silent Valveless
Water Waste Preventer", a siphon discharge system.
Crapper popularized the siphon system for emptying the tank,
replacing the earlier floating valve system which was prone
Bramah's improved version was the first practical
and further developments
flush toilets first appeared in Britain, they soon spread
to the Continent.
The first such examples may have been the three "waterclosets"
installed in the new town house of banker Nicolay August
Andresen on 6 Kirkegaten in Christiania,
insured in January 1859. The toilets were probably imported
from Britain, as they were referred to by the English term
"waterclosets" in the insurance ledger. Another early watercloset
on the European continent, dating from 1860, was imported
from Britain to be installed in the rooms of Queen
Victoria in Ehrenburg
Germany); she was the only one who was allowed to use it.
the chain-pull indoor toilet was introduced in the homes
of the wealthy and in hotels, soon after its invention in
England in the 1880s. Flush toilets were introduced in the
Elvis Sloan invented the Flushometer
in 1906, which used pressurized water directly from the
supply line for faster recycle time between flushes. The
Flushometer is still in use today in public restrooms worldwide.
The vortex-flushing toilet bowl, which creates a self-cleansing
effect, was invented by Thomas MacAvity Stewart of Saint
John, New Brunswick in 1907.
Haas of Dayton,
Ohio, made some significant
developments, including the flush rim toilet with multiple
jets of water from a ring and the water closet flushing
and recycling mechanism similar to those in use today.
Thompson, working for Caroma in Australia,
developed the Duoset cistern with two
buttons and two flush volumes as a water-saving measure
in 1980. Modern versions of the Duoset are now available
worldwide, and save the average household 67% of their normal
term "water closet" was an early term for an interior or
exterior room with a flushing toilet in contrast with an
closet usually outdoors and requiring periodic emptying
soil". Originally, the term "wash-down closet" was used.
The term "water closet" was coined in England around 1870.
It did not reach the United States until the 1880s. Around
this time, only luxury hotels and wealthy people had indoor
private bathrooms. By 1890 in the US, there was increased
public awareness of the theory of disease and of carelessly
disposed human waste being contaminated and infectious.
the term "bath-room" referred only to the room where the
bathtub was located (usually a separate room not housing
a toilet), but this connotation has changed in common North
American usage. In the UK, the terms "bathroom" and "toilet"
are used to indicate distinct functions, even though bathrooms
in modern homes often include toilets. The term "water closet"
was probably adopted because in the late 19th century, with
the advent of indoor plumbing, a toilet displaced an early
clothes closet, closets being renovated to easily accommodate
the spatial needs of a commode.garderobes
because they actually were used to store clothes, as the
smell of ammonia
was found to deter fleas and moths. Early indoor toilets had in
fact been known as
term "water closet" is still used today in some places,
but it often refers to a room that has both a toilet and
other plumbing fixtures such as a sink or a bathtub. Plumbing
manufacturers often use the term "water closet" to differentiate
toilets from urinals.
American plumbing codes still refer to a toilet as a "Water
Closet" or a "WC". Many South American countries refer to
a toilet as a "water" or "WC". The Royal
Spanish Academy Dictionary accepts "váter" as a name
for a toilet or bathroom, which is derived from the British
term "water closet". In French, the expression aller
aux waters ("to go to the waters") has now become obsolete,
but it also derives from "water closet". "WC" is still used
in the French language, although not as common as the term
"toilet", and pronounced as "VC", a shortened version of
"double V C". In Germany, the expression "Klo" (first syllable
of "Kloset") is still used, though "WC" is more common.
In Dutch and Swiss German, using the term "WC" is common.
Asian countries and China in particular, "WC" is used as
a universal name for the toilet; many Chinese people will
make a hand sign with the forefinger and thumb held in the
shape of a "C" while the remaining 3 fingers of the same
hand are extended to represent a "W", thus indicating where
they are going or perhaps to explain where someone has gone.
a commonly held misconception that when flushed, the water
in a toilet bowl swirls one way if the toilet is north of
the equator and the other way if south of the equator, due
to the Coriolis
effect – usually, counter clockwise in the northern
hemisphere, and clockwise in the southern hemisphere. In
reality, the direction that the water takes is much more
determined by the direction that the bowl's rim jets are
pointed, and it can be made to flush in either direction
in either hemisphere by simply redirecting the rim jets
during manufacture. On the scale of bathtubs and toilets,
the Coriolis effect is too weak to be observed except under
carefully controlled laboratory conditions.
Kagan, Mya. "Where Does
the Water Go When I Flush the Toilet?" Kids' Why Questions.
Whyzz. Publications LLC, 2011. Web. 28 Nov. 2011.
YouTube video of toilet
Accessed 26 Sep 2011
YouTube video of toilet
Accessed 26 Sep 2011
lawmaker wants tax credits for water-conserving toilet".
Cronkite News Service.
William, "Valve", issued December 6, 1910
flushing to be extended to more Hong Kong toilets next
China Morning Post, 3 April 2014.
Of WC Pan - SimplifyDIY - DIY and Home Improvement Solutions".
principles - Appliances". upperplumbers.co.uk.
Toilet Comprehensive Guide". pickmytoilet.com.
Retrieved 16 October 2015.
Flush and Thomas Crapper: W". Thunder, Flush
and Thomas Crapper index.
Retrieved 30 April 2015.
Do It At The Station" by Ian Wallace". Playlists.net.
University puts up toilet instruction posters".
training for 18-YEAR-OLDS: University puts up posters
giving foreign students lessons in how to use Western
loos". Daily Mail.
installs European-style squat toilet because foreign
workers 'kept breaking the loo by standing on it'".
standing on the toilet! Lloyds Bank issues instructions
to its foreign staff on how to use British loos".
of brick or water bottle for water conservation".
U.S.C. sec 6295(k)(1)(A)". Codes.lp.findlaw.com.
Perman (3 April 2000), "Psst!
Wanna Buy An Illegal Toilet?", Time (Windsor,
Ontario), archived from the
original on 1 December 2008
of Popular Toilet Models by Veritec Consulting".
revolution: As water concerns rise, toilet makers meeting
the challenge", Lacrosse Tribune, 26 November
2007; accessed 3 January 2009
Fleishman (5 September 1999). "Mich.
Congressman offers measure to flush low-flow toilet
laws". Sunday Gazette. Washington Post. p. D3.
Toilets All Wet, Some Lawmakers Say". Los Angeles
Times (Washington). Associated Press. 28 July 1999.
Rodda, J. C. and Ubertini,
Lucio (2004). The Basis of Civilization - Water Science?
pg 161. International Association of Hydrological Sciences
(International Association of Hydrological Sciences
C. Michael Hogan. 2007.
fieldnotes, The Modern Antiquarian
Ancient History Encyclopedia.
Sarah Smith (2007), Clean:
a history of personal hygiene and purity, p. 28,
retrieved 30 July 2010
Jonathan (1986), "A Privvie in Perfection: Sir John
Harrington's Water Closet", Bath History 1:
0-86299-294-X. Kinghorn supervised a modern reconstruction
in 1981, based on the illustrated description by Harington's
assistant Thomas Coombe in the New Discourse.
Alec Skempton; et al. (2002). A Biographical Dictionary
of Civil Engineers in Great Britain and Ireland: Vol
1: 1500 to 1830. Thomas Telford. ISBN 0-7277-2939-X.
David J. Eveleigh, ‘Twyford,
Thomas William (1849–1921)’, Oxford Dictionary of National
Biography, Oxford University Press, May 2009; online
edn, May 2011
David J. (2008), Privies and Water Closets, Oxford:
Shire Publications, ISBN 978-0-7478-0702-5
189804990, Giblin, Albert, "Improvements in Flushing
Crapper – Fact and Fiction, ExNet,
retrieved 13 May 2010
189804990, Giblin, Albert, "Improvements in Flushing
Cisterns", published 1 March 1898, issued 9 April 1898
189700724, Crapper, George & Robert Marr Wharam,
"Improvements in or relating to Automatic Syphon Flushing
Tanks", published 11 January 1897, issued 6 March 1897
actually an 1897 patent
Mario Theriault, Great
Maritime Inventions 1833-1950, Goose Lane Editions,
2001, p. 34.
Years of Australian Innovation - Dual flush technology".
Mary Beth and Carol Sheriff, David M Katzman, David
W. Blight, Howard Chudacoff (2002). A People and
a Nation: A History of the United States, Volume II:
Since 1865. Cengage Learning. p. 504. ISBN 978-0-495-91590-4.
Style sanitaryware and Antique Bathrooms". Thomas
Sheriff, Katzman, Blight and Chudacoff (2008). A
People and A Nation. Houghton Mifflin. ISBN 0-618-95196-2.
bathtubs drain counterclockwise in the Northern Hemisphere?",
The Straight Dope, April 15, 1983]
MISSION VIEJO CA:
"Make Living Your Mission"
Location of Mission Viejo within Orange
in the United States
| • Type
| • Mayor
| • City
| • Total
||18.123 sq mi
| • Land
||17.739 sq mi
| • Water
||0.384 sq mi
(0.995 km2) 2.12%
| • Total
| • Estimate (2013)
| • Density
| • Summer
is a city in Orange
in the Saddleback
Valley. Mission Viejo is considered one of the largest master-planned
communities ever built under a single project in the United States,
and is rivaled only by Highlands
Ranch, Colorado, in its size. Its population as of 2014 was estimated
is suburban in nature and
culture. The city is mainly residential, although there are a number
of offices and businesses within its city limits. The city is known
for its picturesque tree-lined neighborhoods, receiving recognition
from the National
Arbor Day Foundation. The city's name is a reference to Rancho
Mission Viejo, a large Spanish land grant from which the community
was purchased by John Forster, a Mexican also known as Don Juan.Mexican-American
War, Forster provided fresh horses to United States military forces
which were used on the march of San Diego to retake Los Angeles. During the
was a hilly region primarily used as cattle and sheep grazing
land, since it was of little use to farmers. This city was one of
the last regions of Orange County to be urbanized due to its geologic
complexity. In 1960, early developers dismissed most of the land in
Mission Viejo as simply "undevelopable".
Bren, an urban planner who later became the president of the Irvine
Company, drafted a master plan which placed roads in the valleys
and houses on the hills, and contoured to the geography of the area.
The plan worked, and by 1980 much of the city of Mission Viejo was
completed. During the late 1970s and the 1980s, houses in Mission
Viejo were in such high demand that housing tracts often sold out
before construction even began on them.
The houses and shopping centers in the city are almost uniformly designed
in a Spanish mission style, with "adobe"-like stucco walls and barrel-tile
roofs. Many point to Mission Viejo as the first and largest manifestation
of Bren's obsession with Spanish architecture. Bren's company was
also the creator of the developments in Irvine, and Newport Beach.
The company expanded its operations and went on to build the Lakes
project in Tempe,
Viejo Aurora in Colorado and was the initial master planner of
Ranch, both in the Denver Metropolitan area.
The seal of the
city of Mission Viejo was designed and drawn by Carl Glassford, an
artist and former resident of the city.
is located at 33°36'46?N
117.65611°W (33.612739, -117.656038).
According to the
States Census Bureau, the city has a total area of 18.1 square
miles (47 km2). 17.7 square miles (46 km2)
of it is land and 0.4 square miles (1.0 km2) of it
(2.12%) is water. A significant portion of the surface water is held
Mission Viejo, an artificial lake stretching approximately one
mile from Olympiad Road to Alicia Parkway along Marguerite Parkway.
It is bordered
Forest on the northwest, Trabuco
Canyon on the northeast, Rancho
Santa Margarita and Ladera
Ranch on the east, San
Juan Capistrano on the south, and Laguna
Niguel and Laguna
Hills on the west.
enjoys a borderline semi-arid/Mediterranean
climate classification BSh/Csa), with mild temperatures
and plentiful sunshine year-round. Rainfall totals, which average
around 14 inches (355 millimetres) annually are focused primarily
in the months from November to March. Summer is very dry and virtually
rainless, however thunderstorms do rarely occur. Due to the city's
proximity to the ocean, nighttime and morning clouds are fairly common,
especially in the months of May and June, a weather phenomenon commonly
known as June
Gloom or May Gray.
Like most of Southern
California, the city is prone to dry Santa Ana winds, which bring
hot air from inland and punctuate the normally mild temperatures with
noticeable jumps. For example, temperatures have reached highs of
90 °F (32 °C) and above throughout many months of the year,
occasionally into the autumn months. Snowfall within city limits is
very rare, however the nearby Saddleback
Mountains receive a dusting of snow every few winters. Since 2012,
California is experiencing the worst drought in a century.
|Climate data for Mission Viejo, California
|Average high °F (°C)
|Average low °F (°C)
U.S. Decennial Census
United States Census
reported that Mission Viejo had a population of 93,305. The population
density was 5,148.3 people per square mile (1,987.8/km²). The
racial makeup of Mission Viejo was 74,493 (79.8%) White
(68.9% Non-Hispanic White),
1,210 (1.3%) African
American, 379 (0.4%) Native
American, 8,462 (9.1%) Asian,
153 (0.2%) Pacific
Islander, 4,332 (4.6%) from other
races, and 4,276 (4.6%) from two or more races. Hispanic
of any race were 15,877 persons (17.0%).
The Census reported
that 92,363 people (99.0% of the population) lived in households,
859 (0.9%) lived in non-institutionalized group quarters, and 83 (0.1%)
There were 33,208
households, out of which 11,767 (35.4%) had children under the age
of 18 living in them, 20,792 (62.6%) were opposite-sex
married couples living together, 2,967 (8.9%) had a female householder
with no husband present, 1,306 (3.9%) had a male householder with
no wife present. There were 1,211 (3.6%) unmarried
opposite-sex partnerships, and 225 (0.7%) same-sex
married couples or partnerships. 6,314 households (19.0%) were
made up of individuals and 2,949 (8.9%) had someone living alone who
was 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.78.
There were 25,065 families
(75.5% of all households); the average family size was 3.18.
was spread out with 21,270 people (22.8%) under the age of 18, 7,852
people (8.4%) aged 18 to 24, 21,648 people (23.2%) aged 25 to 44,
29,003 people (31.1%) aged 45 to 64, and 13,532 people (14.5%) who
were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 42.2 years. For
every 100 females there were 95.4 males. For every 100 females age
18 and over, there were 92.2 males.
There were 34,228
housing units at an average density of 1,888.6 per square mile (729.2/km²),
of which 25,859 (77.9%) were owner-occupied, and 7,349 (22.1%) were
occupied by renters. The homeowner vacancy rate was 0.9%; the rental
vacancy rate was 4.9%. 72,390 people (77.6% of the population) lived
in owner-occupied housing units and 19,973 people (21.4%) lived in
rental housing units.
According to the
2010 United States Census, Mission Viejo had a median household income
of $96,088, with 5.3% of the population living below the federal poverty
of Lake Mission Viejo and the surrounding developments (2014)
The Mission Viejo-Lake
Clemente urban area (which also includes the cities of Aliso
Santa Margarita and San
Juan Capistrano) had a population of 583,681 at the 2010 Census.
At the 2000 census,
there were 93,102 people, 32,449 households and 25,212 families residing
in the city. The population
density was 4,990.1 inhabitants per square mile (1,926.4/km²).
There were 32,986 housing units at an average density of 1,767.9 per
square mile (682.5/km²). The racial makeup of the city was 79.7% white,
American, 0.4% Native
American, 8.3% Asian,
Islander, 6.2% from other
races, and 3.7% from two or more races. Hispanic
of any race were 15.9% of the population. There were 32,449 households
out of which 39.7% had children under the age of 18 living with them,
66.1% were married couples
living together, 8.1% had a female householder with no husband present,
and 22.3% were non-families. 17.3% of all households were made up
of individuals and 6.0% had someone living alone who was 65 years
of age or older. The average household size was 2.84 and the average
family size was 3.22.
was 27.1% under the age of 18, 6.6% from 18 to 24, 30.5% from 25 to
44, 24.9% from 45 to 64, and 10.9% who were 65 years of age or older.
The median age was 38 years. For every 100 females there were 95.7
males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 91.7 males.
According to a
2008 estimate, the median
household income was $93,330, and the median family income was
Males had a median income of $74,703 versus $53,196 for females. The
income for the city was $41,459. 1.9% of families and 4.4% of
the population were below the poverty
line, including 5.1% of those under age 18 and 6% of those age
65 or over.
Hospital is the largest hospital in south Orange County and serves
as the area's regional trauma center. It also offers one of two Children's
Hospital of Orange County locations providing care for children.
has numerous recreational areas such as the Norman P. Murray Community
and Senior Center there are about two parks per square mile. The city
has three golf courses, The Mission Viejo Country Club, Casta del
Sol Golf Course, and the Arroyo Trabuco Golf Club. At the center of
the city is a man-made lake, Lake Mission
Viejo, a private association for Mission Viejo residents with
custom waterfront homes, condominiums, boat and paddle board rentals,
fishing, and swim beaches. Lake Mission Viejo also holds events such
as music concerts and movie screenings, usually complimentary for
members and typically during the summer season.
Shops at Mission Viejo and the Kaleidescope Courtyards serve as
the city's two main shopping, dining and entertainment centers. Both
cater to an upper middle class customer demographic and feature family-oriented
facilities and services.
also hosts a number of athletic events such as 5K runs and triathlons
throughout the year. The city holds a variety of annually recurring
events to celebrate holidays including a street fair and fireworks
for Independence Day and public decorations and interactive activities
for children during the winter holiday season featuring representation
for multiple popular religions.
According to the
City's 2010 Comprehensive Annual Financial Report,
the top employers in the city were:
Callender's has its corporate headquarters in the Marie Callender's
Corporate Support Center in Mission Viejo.
has a major youth athletic facility, Mission Viejo Youth Athletic
Park. The park consists of eight baseball fields and five soccer fields.
It is host to Little
League District 68, AYSO
Region 84, and four competitive soccer clubs: Pateadores Soccer
Club, Mission Viejo Soccer Club, West Coast Futbol Club, and Saddleback
United Soccer Club.
Viejo Nadadores Swimming and Mission Viejo Nadadores Diving Team
won a string of national championships and produced a number of Olympians
and world record holders in the 1970s and 1980s. Olympians included
Goodell, Larson Jenson, Maryanne Graham, Nicole Kramer, Casy Converse,
Marcia Morey, Dara
Torres, and Greg
hosted the Road
Cycling Events during the 1984
Summer Olympics held in Los Angeles. The old O'Neill Road was
renamed Olympiad Rd. in honor of the Olympic events in 1984.
There is also
a soccer facility, now used by the town's youth soccer program, that
was used as a training field by the United States men's national soccer
team before and during the 1994
FIFA World Cup, hosted by the United States. Mission Viejo is
the largest AYSO Region in the country.
College ballpark hosted the Mission
Viejo Vigilantes minor league baseball team of the Western
Baseball League from 1996–2001. Now the ballpark has a semi-pro
collegiate team, the Orange County Fire.
is also the hometown of NFL
Twins pitcher Phil
Hughes, and Chicago
White Sox first baseman Adam
LaRoche, former Milwaukee
Brewers pitcher Don
Red Sox outfielder Allen
Shot Season 4 Champion Chris
Cheng, and PBA Tour Champion Scott Norton.
Viejo Library was built in 1996-97 and expanded in 2000-02
is served by two school districts, the Capistrano
Unified School District and Saddleback
Valley Unified School District. Capistrano Unified serves the
eastern, northeastern, and southern portions of the city with eight
schools. As of 2006, all high school students in the Capistrano Unified
portion of Mission Viejo attend Capistrano
Valley High School. Students from western Mission Viejo (north
of Oso Parkway and west of Marguerite until Alicia Parkway) attend
Saddleback Valley's Mission
Viejo High School. Far northern Mission Viejo attends Saddleback
Hills High School, though most of that school has students from
Rancho Santa Margarita and Lake Forest. A few residents attend Tesoro
High School in Las Flores or the private Santa
Margarita Catholic High School in Rancho Santa Margarita.
High School, Mira Monte High School, and Pathfinder are continuation
and adult schools within the city. Silverado High School provides
a day school environment while Mira Monte, which shares the same campus,
is strictly independent study.
College, near The
Shops at Mission Viejo and Capistrano
Valley High School, is a large community college in the southern
half of the city. In addition, the University
of California, Irvine, Chapman
University of America, and California
State University, Fullerton (Irvine
Campus), are nearby in adjacent cities.
La Tierra Elementary
shut down in June 2009 due to budget cuts. It was chosen due to its
small size and minimal student body. The school will remain closed
until further notice. Mission Viejo residents refer to La Tierra as
"The Little School with a Big Heart". Students there are reassigned
to Del Cerro Elementary.
the city's first elementary school, closed in June 2009 also due to
budget cuts in SVUSD. Students in the Deane Home community surrounding
the school will be moved to nearby De Portola Elementary. Students
living in the homes north of the lake will be moved to Melinda Heights
Elementary in Rancho Santa Margarita.
Aldrich (born 1970), actress
J. Ames (1921–2011), illustrator and writer known for the
Draw 50... learn-to-draw books
Craig (born 1984), infielder/outfielder for the Boston
Fagan (born 1956), syndicated cartoonist for Drabble
Finneran (born 1976), Wide Receiver for Atlanta
Falcons in the NFL
Fisher (born 1973), musician, drummer and percussionist
Foudy (born 1971), soccer player, member of National
Soccer Hall of Fame
Friedman (1951–2011), singer and songwriter
George (born 1982), Miss
Arkansas USA 2007
Goodell (born 1959), swimmer, gold medalist in 1976
Summer Olympics and world-record holder
Grannis (born 1985), singer and songwriter
Harvey (born 1984), association football player
Henrie (born 1989), actor, Wizards
of Waverly Place
J. Hinshaw (born 1923), member of the U.S.
House of Representatives (1975–1977)
Hughes (born 1986), Major
League Baseball pitcher for the Minnesota
"Rampage" Jackson (born 1978), fighter, former UFC Light-Heavyweight
Griffith Joyner (1959–1998), track-and-field gold medalist
Keilar (born 1980), CNN
correspondent, Mission Viejo High School homecoming queen 1998
F. Lally (born 1934), aerospace engineer, photographer, entrepreneur
LaRoche (born 1979), Major
League Baseball first baseman for the Chicago
Lee (1907–1993), burlesque comic and children's television
Leslie (1926–2000), actress
López-Alegría (born 1958), astronaut
Louganis (born 1960), Olympic gold medalist in diving
- Scott Manville
(born 1971), Television Producer and Founder of the Television
Marinovich (born 1969), quarterback for USC and in National
McClung (1972–2006), first female United States Marine Corps
officer killed in combat during the Iraq War
Mead (born 1987), actor
Miller (born 1980), mixed martial artist
Munck (born 1996), actor, iCarly
"Peter" Peng (born 1993) better known as "Doublelift", professional
League of Legends AD Carry for Team
Persinger (born 1959), sculptor
Sanchez (born 1986), quarterback for USC and NFL's New
York Jets and Philadelphia
Sandeno (born 1983), swimmer
(1970–1994), pornographic actress
Scurich (born 1986), soccer player
Sherry (1935–2006), Major League Baseball relief pitcher,
MVP of 1959
Simpson (born 1991), MV Football Legend
Sorum (born 1960), drummer for Guns
N' Roses from 1990 to 1997
Swanson (born 1969), actress
Tringale (born 1987), pro golfer
Moreno Young (born 1977), actress
of Mission Viejo California Website". City of Mission Viejo
California Website. Retrieved
September 14, 2012.
Cities by Incorporation Date" (Word).
California Association of Local
Agency Formation Commissions.
Retrieved August 25, 2014.
Council". City of Mission Viejo.
Retrieved January 11, 2015.
Hall Information and Directory". City of Mission Viejo.
Retrieved December 15, 2014.
Census U.S. Gazetteer Files – Places – California". United
States Census Bureau.
Names Information System. United
States Geological Survey.
Retrieved February 11, 2015.
Viejo (city) QuickFacts". United
States Census Bureau. Retrieved
April 12, 2015.
Chris (2008). Vanishing
Orange County. Arcadia
Publishing. p. 33.
Retrieved March 8, 2011.
FRANK; PAULSON, WENDY (May 27, 1990). "Rebels
Dig In to Defend Last Ridge in South : Growth: The city carved
out by the Mission Viejo Co. is on edge over the developer's final
step. The company's offer of recreational land may not be enough
to take Naciente Ridge.". Los
Angeles Times. Retrieved
8 March 2016.
Gazetteer files: 2010, 2000, and 1990". United
States Census Bureau. 2011-02-12.
weather for Mission Viejo" Weather
Channel. Retrieved 2012-07-14.
Estimates of the Resident Population for Incorporated Places:
April 1, 2010 to July 1, 2014".
Retrieved June 4, 2015.
of Population and Housing". Census.gov.
Retrieved June 4, 2015.
Census Interactive Population Search: CA - Mission Viejo city".
U.S. Census Bureau. Retrieved
July 12, 2014.
Viejo (city) QuickFacts from the US Census Bureau". census.gov.
Retrieved February 10, 2016.
States Census Bureau. Retrieved
FactFinder, United States Census Bureau. "Mission
Viejo city, California – Income in the Past 12 Months (In 2008
Inflation-Adjusted Dollars)". Factfinder.census.gov.
Retrieved March 6, 2011.
P Murray Community Center". City of Mission Viejo. March 4,
2011. Retrieved March
of Mission Viejo CAFR". Cityofmissionviejo.org.
Retrieved March 14, 2011.
Us." Marie Callender's. Retrieved on May 27, 2012. "Mailing
Address: Marie Callender's Corporate Support Center 27101 Puerta
Real, Suite 260 Mission Viejo, CA 92691"
Database". UC Regents.
Retrieved December 1, 2014.
Tierra Elementary copes with closure". The Orange County
Register. Retrieved February
closure pains O'Neill school community". The Orange County
Register. Retrieved February
Woo (January 11, 2011). "Debbie
Friedman, self-taught Jewish folk singer, dies at 59". Los
Angeles Times. Retrieved
September 11, 2013.
Jackson - There’s No Place Like His Second Home". Ultimate
Fighting Championship. February 23, 2012.
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Jere (October 23, 1998). "Griffith
Joyner Died After Seizure in Sleep". The
New York Times. Retrieved
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graduation time for the O.C. kids on 'iCarly'".
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kids are all right on ‘iCarly' - The Orange County Register".
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